In the UW Colleges, research with human subjects is governed by UWCAP #15.
In addition, you should also read and be familiar with UW Colleges Administrative Policy #56 on Non-compliance in Human Subjects Research.
If you doing research in the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning (SOTL) you are advised to read "Guidelines for Human Research Participants"
Research with human subjects is subject to federal regulations (45 Code of Federal Regulations 46 (45 CFR 46)).
Research with human subjects is also guided by the ethical principles stated in the Belmont Report.
The OHRP site provides eleven flowcharts that address decisions on the following:
whether an activity is research that must be reviewed by an IRB
whether the review may be performed by expedited procedures, and
whether informed consent or its documentation may be waived.
If you're interested in the currently-proposed revisions to 45 CFR 46, more information can be found here: Proposed revisions